In the middle of the 18th century, British goods were increasingly sold overseas, and the production technology of the artisanal workshops was insufficient. In order to increase production, people are looking for ways to improve production technology. In the cotton textile sector, people first invented a weaving tool called flying shuttle, which greatly accelerated the speed of weaving and stimulated the demand for cotton yarn. In the 1860s, weaver James Hargreaves invented the "Jenny machine" hand spinning machine.
The "Jenny machine" can spin many cotton threads at a time, which greatly improves productivity. The great development of the British spinning industry made the weaving industry seem backward. In 1768, Cartwright invented the hydraulic loom, which increased the weaving efficiency by forty times. By 1800, the British cotton spinning industry had basically achieved mechanization.
In this way, the industrial revolution that transitioned from workshop handicraft industry to machine industry began with the British textile industry. Subsequently, the advanced technology of the industrial revolution was widely absorbed and adopted by the United States, France, Germany, Russia and other European and American powers, which greatly increased labor productivity, promoted the development of commerce and transportation, accelerated the process of urbanization, and greatly changed The life of mankind.